But, unlike drug makers, supplement makers are not required to prove that their products are safe and effective on humans. Nor do they have to get federal approval before selling their products. That means it is up to the F. A result is that untested and potentially harmful ingredient combinations can easily end up on store shelves, says Amy Eichner, special adviser on drugs and supplements at the United States Anti-Doping Agency , the anti-doping association for American Olympic athletes. Eichner says. According to the GNC Web site, the company requires vendors who wish to place new products in stores to submit an application that includes a product sample, pricing recommendations and a marketing budget.
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GNC also has a medical advisory board of physicians who help guide the development of new products, the site says. For some GNC-branded sports supplements, the company works with an independent testing company to certify that the products do not contain substances banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. But GNC declined to answer questions about whether the company requires vendors to provide ingredient and product safety data for their supplements or to certify that those products are free of banned substances.
A large majority of supplements are safe, says Steve Mister, president of the Council for Responsible Nutrition , an industry trade group, noting that only a small number of people, out of millions of users, report health problems. Some people have allergies or idiosyncratic reactions to certain supplements, just as some people react badly to certain foods or medications, he says, and that is why many retailers, including GNC, have agreements with vendors to indemnify them should a product turn out to be defective or harmful.
Mister says. Consumer advocates argue that the regulatory system gives retailers no incentive to ensure the safety of third-party products. If a supplement turns out to pose health risks, retailers can simply replace it with a reformulated product or a new brand, with little consequence, says Dr. Pieter Cohen, an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School who studies supplement safety. That is what has happened in previous cases involving products made by third-party vendors. GNC and other retailers marketed StarCaps, a popular weight-loss product, as a natural supplement containing papaya enzymes.
The product was recalled in after the F. StarCaps is no longer on the market. In , the F.
The distributor agreed to recall the products , and the Hydroxycut line has since been reformulated; GNC sells some of those products. Other major retailers, including the Vitamin Shoppe, have sold the same items. The Vitamin Shoppe also continues to sell Jack3d , but GNC has more than 10 times the number of outlets in the United States, and thus the market power to turn products by niche manufacturers into national best sellers. In a conference call with investors in February , Joseph Fortunato, the GNC chief executive, noted how quickly the assortment of workout supplements changes.
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Fortunato said. Things come, things go very quickly. When something goes, something replaces it very quickly.
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Ever since her son died, Ms. Sparling has kept an eye on the marketing of Jack3d by dropping into local GNC outlets.
Bypassing the shelves of vitamins and protein bars, Ms. Sparling headed directly for the locked shelf displaying the original Jack3d and a new formulation, Jack3d Micro, which does not contain DMAA. When a young sales associate came over, Ms. Sparling asked about Jack3d. He also recommended that Jack3d not be taken after 2 p. DMAA has a short track record as a dietary supplement. Eli Lilly, the pharmaceutical company, first developed it in the s as an inhaled drug for nasal congestion. A council of the American Medical Association recommended discontinuing the use of the drug in patients who experienced side effects like tremors, headaches and nervousness.
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In the s, Lilly voluntarily removed the product from the market. The stimulant was trademarked under the name Geranamine. Arnold was convicted in for his role in the Balco case, the government investigation into steroid use by elite athletes. Since then, DMAA has been included in dozens of supplements, and the makers of those products contend that the stimulant qualifies as a dietary ingredient because they say it can be found in geranium grown in a particular area of China.
Health regulators in at least seven countries have effectively banned supplements containing DMAA. In the United States, the F. Among the reports, there were accounts of five deaths: three of people who used Jack3d; one of a person who took OxyElite, a fat-burning product also made by USPlabs; and one of a person who used both products. Other reports cited hospitalizations for heart attacks, heart failure, kidney failure and liver failure. Federal regulators caution that these anecdotal cases do not prove a causal link between the products and the health problems that were reported.
Most of the companies that received F. USPlabs, the maker of Jack3d, however, contended in its response to regulators that the substance was both safe and legal. The dispute between the agency and the company is continuing, with health regulators saying the products are adulterated and USPlabs saying they are not.
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But Dr. Cohen of Harvard, who is also an internist at the Cambridge Health Alliance, says some of those studies suggested that the stimulant was problematic. One published study, for instance, reported that four out of six people assigned to take OxyElite Pro dropped out of the experiment after experiencing problems like sleeplessness, inability to focus, nausea, headaches and jitters. Mister of the Council for Responsible Nutrition. After the F. The company is not exactly a model of industry best practices. Last year, a former president of the company pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor criminal charge that the site had sold anabolic steroids illegally in the guise of dietary supplements.
But Bodybuilding. Seven months later, in a conference call with investors, Mr. In that response, Mr. Fortunato seemed to indicate that GNC was phasing out products like Jack3d. And we did a fantastic job of transitioning that business. Last week, however, Mr. Indeed, Ms. Sparling continues to find Jack3d on her expeditions to various GNC outlets.
Sparling, standing in the parking lot looking back at the store, said he did not understand how GNC could maintain it had no evidence that the stimulant posed health risks. IN high school, Michael Sparling studied military history. Then he announced to his family that he wanted to enlist in the Army. After graduating from high school, Michael worked for several years at a local sporting goods store. But when he turned 21 and still seemed set on a military career, his family supported his decision.
In early , he went to basic training at Fort Benning, Ga. He wrote his family cheerful letters, with enthusiastic descriptions of military life. You always put on a good Super Bowl party. Michael Sparling was athletic. He played soccer and football in junior high school, took up snowboarding and trained in the martial art of ninjutsu with his father. This is exactly the same as Type BC-2 except that three conductors are used instead of two. TYPE IW--This ignition wire consists of a single conductor of 19 copper wires, covered with a rubber insulation and a braid which will resist oil, gasoline, water, ozone, and weather.
This cable shall be used exclusively for wiring internal combustion engines. Note: The prefix letter on all cables indicates the number of conductors in the cable except the "M" and "GIC" cables. The suffix numeral on all cables except the "M" and "GIC" cables represents the size of the conductor in circular mils. On the "M" and "GIC" cables, the suffix numeral represents the number of conductors in that cable.
All motor controllers, distribution panels, and similar apparatus except switchboards and switchboard panels which have special installation requirements shall be installed at a height so that either the bottoms of the enclosing cabinets shall be not less than five feet, or the top not more than seven feet above the deck. All hand-operated appliances, including distribution boxes with switches, individual switches, receptacles with switches, push buttons, jack boxes, etc.
Connection boxes, feeder connection boxes, feeder distribution boxes, feeder junction boxes and distribution boxes without switches may be installed overhead, provided the deck height does not exceed nine feet, and the minimum-head room under the appliances is not less than seven feet. All controllers, panels, and apparatus shall be so installed that they are completely accessible for operation repairs, renewal of fuses, testing, maintenance, etc. All watertight and explosion-proof electric wiring equipment shall be fitted with standard terminal tubes for the entrance of cables.
When the equipment has aluminum cases, the terminal tubes shall be aluminum. In installing aluminum tubes in aluminum boxes, the terminal tubes shall be threaded into the boxes until the shoulder of the tube touches the side of the box.
The end of the threaded part of the tube shall be flush with the inside wall of the box. The aluminum thread of box and terminal tube shall be coated with an anti-seize compound of petrolatum and zinc dust. The entrance of cables through the bottom of vertically installed non-watertight appliances shall be avoided where side or top entrance is practicable and involves no undue increase in wiring. Care shall be taken, however, that the saving in weight intended by the use of such non-watertight appliances is not offset by the installation of additional cable lengths to avoid bottom entrance to the cable for such appliances.
Where cables do enter the top of non-watertight fittings, standard terminal tubes shall be used. Cables shall be carried into the side of such appliances so that they are maintained to their full diameter at least flush with the inside surface of the box wall.